Morbidity and Risk Factors for Mortality of Newborns at Term in Togo Volume 15, issue 3, Septembre 2023


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The first month of life represents the most vulnerable period for child survival. The main causes of death are sepsis, asphyxia, and prematurity dominate the etiologies. But what are the causes of hospitalization and death of newborns at term?


To describe the morbidity of the eutrophic newborn at term and to identify the factors related to mortality in Togo.

Patients and method

A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to August 31, 2019, in the Pediatric department of the Sylvanus-Olympio University Hospital of Lomé, Togo. Data collection was prospective. The sampling was exhaustive. The data collected were processed using SPSS Version 25 software. The significance level of P was 0.05.


The hospitalization rate was 23.5%. The average age of the mothers was 28 years. The average number of ANCs performed was 4. The average number of doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine taken during pregnancy was 3.3. The thickness test was positive for Plasmodium falciparum at 35.2%. The median age of the newborns was one day. The sex ratio M/F was 1:6. Newborns were referred in 46% of cases. The mean weight on admission was 3071.6 g. Fever, hypotonia, and respiratory difficulties were the main reasons for hospitalization. Neonatal sepsis, asphyxia, and malaria were the main morbidities in 57.8%, 26.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. The median length of hospitalization was five days. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Perinatal asphyxia and neonatal sepsis were the main causes of death, whereas lethality was higher for hemorrhagic syndrome, perinatal asphyxia, and congenital malformations. No maternal factors were associated with newborn deaths. The number of prenatal visits less than 4 was the only obstetrical factor significantly associated with death (P = 0.005). Admission during the first 24 h of life (P = 0.001), place of birth outside the university hospital (P = 0.002), and duration of resuscitation greater than 10 min (P = 0.000*) were the neonatal factors significantly associated with death.


The main morbidities of eutrophic newborns at term in Togo are sepsis, asphyxia, and malaria. The implementation of strategies to control the factors associated with mortality will reduce mortality.