Pôle hospitalo-universitaire de gérontologie clinique, CHU Nantes, France
Hôpitaux universitaires Paris Centre, Service de gériatrie, Hôpital Broca, Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France
Potassium is involved in the voltage and excitability of the myocytes. Its homeostasis is dependent on dietary intake and its predominant renal elimination. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates its elimination. Acute and chronic hyperkalemia is a risk factor for cardiac mortality. Chronic renal failure and heart failure are the major comorbidities. RAAS inhibitor therapies are the major iatrogenic factors in hyperkalemia. Approximately 90% of patients with hyperkalemia are over 50 years of age and 43% are over 75 years of age. Only 4.9% of hyperkalemias are managed with resin therapy. One-third of patients have 3 comorbidities, and 14% have 5 or more comorbidities. The main comorbidities are hypertension (74.0%), dyslipidemia (56.3%), renal failure (55.2%), diabetes (44.7%), coronary artery disease such as angina and myocardial infarction (23.3%) and heart failure (12%). It should be noted that 2/3 of the patients receiving resins were also receiving ARBSIs and tended to have more co-morbidities. Hyperkalemia is underestimated and requires strict monitoring in patients with renal failure or heart failure. Resins are not suitable for long-term adherence and new therapies such as patiromer would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia.