Division of Human Biology and Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100
Fairview Ave. N., Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a restriction factor blocking replication of many viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SAMHD1 was initially identified by homology with a murine GTPase induced by interferon gamma (IFNγ) and known for its involvement in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a rare inflammatory disorder . In 2011, the identification of SAMHD1 as the restriction factor inhibiting HIV-1 infection in macrophages and dendritic cells has been a major advance in the field of retrovirology [2, 3]. In this review, I will discuss recent advances on the mechanism of SAMHD1 restriction of HIV-1, the regulation of SAMHD1 by the cell cycle and by cytokines, and how viruses evolved to counteract SAMHD1 restriction.
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