CHU de Monastir, Service d’hépatogastroentérologie, Monastir, 5000, Tunisie
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are two chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease. The mainstays of current treatment comprise anti-inflammatory agents including corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologic agents.
Diet and nutrition concerns of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases are extremely common, and appropriate. Patients often believe that their disease is caused by, and can be cured by diet. Until recently, the analysis of nutritional approaches in treating the diseases have been largely confined to the utilization of enteral and total parenteral nutrition with the objective of providing bowel rest. Determinations from epidemiology studies show that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most usual pattern associated with an increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
New studies in murine models suggest that dietary emulsifiers may activate the gut inflammatory cascade. New studies of restriction diets in patients have shown a relationship between dietary intake, symptoms, and bowel inflammation. Until several ongoing clinical trials are completed, a reasonable approach to dietary recommendations for patients with IBD is to propose a well-balanced, healthy (low-fat, low-sugar) diet prepared from fresh ingredients, with exclusions of self-identified foods that worsen or trigger inflammatory bowel disease-related symptoms.