Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Institut du Cancer, Hospices Civils de Lyon, service d’oncologie médicale, Pavillon E, UJOMM, 69437 Lyon cedex 03, France
Unité INSERM UMR 1052 CNRS UMR 5286, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Équipe 4, Faculté de Médecine RTH Laennec, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Lung neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), named “carcinoid tumors” in the WHO 2015 classification, represent 25% of neuroendocrine tumors. They have, by definition, a well differentiated morphology and are subdivided in typical and atypical carcinoids according to the mitotic index and the presence or absence of necrosis. The therapeutic management of this tumors has many similarities with digestive NETs and depends on the initial characterization of the tumor including: presence of hormonal secretion, stage, the possible association with a genetic predisposition syndrome (MEN1), uptake on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and prognostic factors (grade, tumor burden, tumor slope). Clinical trials are now available for this localization (RADIANT-4, LUNA, SPINET). There is an urgent need of identification of predictive biomarkers of response to available treatments, and to develop new therapeutic strategies based on the molecular abnormalities described in this tumor subset.