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Hepatitis E in France, new epidemiological and clinical data Volume 22, issue 9, Novembre 2015

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Authors
1 CHU Toulouse,
Hôpital Purpan, Université Paul Sabatier III,
service d’hépato-gastro-entérologie,
Pavillon Dieulafoy,
31059 Toulouse Cedex 9,
France
2 CHU Toulouse,
Hôpital Purpan, Université Paul Sabatier III,
Laboratoire de Virologie,
Toulouse, France
* Tirés à part

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the first cause of acute viral hepatitis in the world with 20 million cases every year, 3.3 million symptomatic cases, and 56,000 deaths. In developing countries, hepatitis E is a waterbone infection. In these countries, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large outbreaks, affect young subjects, with an important mortality rate in pregnant women and in cirrhotic patients. In developed countries, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are responsible for autochthonous, sporadic hepatitis, and their transmission is zoonotic. HEV can cause neurologic disorders and chronic infections in immunocompromised patients. The course of acute E hepatitis is most often mild, and resolves spontaneously. Diagnosis relies on the detection of specific anti-HEV IgM antibodies in the serum and/or viral RNA in the blood or the stools by PCR. Ribavirin is used to treat chronic infection in immunocompromised patients. A vaccine has been developed in China.