CHU Côte de Nacre, Service d’hépato-gastroentérologie, Caen
AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Seine Saint-Denis, APHP, Service d’hépatologie, Bobigny
Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité
Inserm, UMRS-1138, équipe FunGeST, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006 Paris
Primitive liver cancer is the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Its incidence is heterogeneous because of the variable prevalence of underlying risk factors. While the incidence tends to decrease in low economic resource countries, its incidence and mortality are rapidly rising in the developed regions. With the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C treatment programs worldwide, the epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma is shifting away from a disease predominated by viral hepatitis to an increasing proportion of cases which are now attributable to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In France, alcohol is the leading cause of the underlying chronic liver disease to liver cancer but this picture could be changed in the future due to a marked growing prevalence of NAFLD which affects about 20% of the French population. Despite remarkable progress in diagnosis and treatment of primary liver cancer, its prognosis remains very poor with a median survival less than 12 months. This highlights the key role of primary prevention with a better control of risk factors and of an efficient monitoring of liver cancer in at high-risk patients.