Ministère de l'Écologie et du Développement durable, 20, avenue de Ségur, 75007 Paris.
- Key words: risk assessment; environmental monitoring; ecosystem; water pollutants, chemical; air pollutants, environmental; biological markers.
- Page(s) : 289-98
- Published in: 2003
Chemical substances dispersed throughout the aquatic environment may be hazardous to living organisms (invertebrates, fish) and to human health. The ecotoxicological risks of these substances are usually assessed by measuring their effects on survival, reproduction, and growth in several representative species, in the laboratory (bioassays) or in the field (biomonitoring). Other approaches, including biomarkers and especially modelling, might be very useful tools in applying the European Community Water FrameworkDirective.