Équipe « Neuroglio-vascular interactions in epilepsies », Département de neurobiologie, Institut de génomique fonctionnelle, CNRS UMR 5203, Inserm U661, UM1, UM2, 141 rue de la Cardonille, 34094 Montpellier Cedex 9
Now, it is well admitted that gliosis contributes to epileptogenesis, particularly in symptomatic focal epilepsies. Indeed, astrocytic and microglial activation was shown to release inflammatory factors that modify neuronal excitability or promote neuronal loss. These redounding processes maintain chronic epilepsy. However, other sources of inflammation exist. Several studies showed that blood-brain barrier failure triggers seizures or even generates epilepsy, due to the leakage of leukocytes or serum proteins and ions which induce inflammatory/immune responses and disturb the neuronal environment. Moreover, it was recently proposed that peripheral inflammation plays a key-role in epilepsy, mainly mediated by circulating cytokines which promote leukocyte extravasation.