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Dose intensification with or without hematopoietic support, tries to overcome resistance of breast cancer to conventional treatment. Rationale of this approach mainly is: (1) the existence of a dose response and/or a dose-intensity-effect relationships; (2) the selection of high-risk and chemosensitive patient population, with a low tumor burden at the time of dose intensification. Progress in supportive therapy has reduced the toxicity of dose intensification. The apparent benefit observed in pilot studies may be, in part, due to patient selection bias and definitive evaluation of the efficacy has to be adressed by prospective controlled trials. This article overviews rationale, main therapeutic results and future prospects with a critical viewpoint.