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Annales de Biologie Clinique

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Évaluation multicentrique de quatre méthodes de dosage direct du cholestérol-LDL Volume 63, issue 1, Janvier-Février 2005

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Authors
Laboratoire de biochimie et Centre clinicobiologique des lipides (Arcol), Groupe Hospitalier L’Archet, Nice, Laboratoire de biochimie, Hôpital Armand Trousseau, AP-HP, Paris, Laboratoire des lipides, Service de biochimie médicale, Groupe hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, Laboratoire de biochimie, Unité cardiovasculaire, Hôpital européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris, Laboratoire de biochimie, Centre hospitalier de Bicêtre, AP-HP, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, Laboratoire de biochimie, CHU Côte de Nacre, Caen, Laboratoire central de biochimie, Hôpital Robert Debré, Reims, Laboratoire de biologie clinique, Centre de médecine préventive, Vandœuvre-Les-Nancy

International guidelines emphasize the importance of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) assay in the care and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular risk. Most studies and common practice use Friedewald’s formula for LDL-C calculation. The accuracy of the result depends closely on the precision of the input parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol), and discrepancies between calculated LDL-C and measurement by reference methods appear when TG exceed 4.5 mmol/L, or in the presence of abnormal lipoproteins. These restrictions and uncertainties in calculations have prompted the recent development of direct and homogeneous methods that fit all analyzers. A multicenter evaluation of four direct assays of LDL-C (Daiichi, Denka Seiken, Kyowa, Wako) was carried out on 45 serum samples (TG below 3.1 mmol/L) in eight laboratories using different analyzers. For three methods (Daiichi, Kyowa, Wako), the interlaboratory reproducibility was markedly improved relative to that of calculation. A strong correlation was found for all new methods when compared with a beta-quantification assay. Average bias in Denka Seiken assays was greater than Kyowa’s and Daiichi’s (although less dispersed for the latter) and for Wako all bias were positive. The relationship between bias variations and the lipid parameters of the samples was studied. Three methods, Daiichi, Kyowa and Wako, revealed a significant positive correlation between bias and serum VLDL-C/TG ratio, clearly indicating that cholesterol enrichment of VLDL was a source of variability in these assays. Specificity of the four methods was tested in situation of dyslipidemia by spiking isolated lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL and HDL). This experiment revealed differences in behavior, most evidently upon addition of VLDL. No method was truly specific, but up to 8 mmol/L of TG the variations were acceptable. In the presence of type III hyperlipoproteinemia, however, only the Denka Seiken method was reliable. Linearity up to 20 mmol/L (Daiichi, Denka Seiken) or 14 mmol/L (Kyowa, Wako) of LDL-C allows these tests to be used in main routine cases. New direct assays are an obvious technological advance in terms of analytical performance and conveniency. Their use for the diagnosis and follow-up of hyperlipidemic patients offers an alternative that overcomes the limitations of the Friedewald calculation.