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Probiotics are microorganisms that have been studied and used for a long time. At the beginning of the 20th century, Elie Metchnikoff published works on fermented milk in which he discovered two bacteria and their potential interest in human health. These probiotics benefit from a recent scientific enthusiasm. As shown in the sudden increase of the number of studies on this subject. But their current prescription remains marginal because of an extremely rare teaching at the faculty, the few medical references available and therefore of an interest and effectiveness which are poorly known. It is therefore necessary to define precisely what a probiotic is, to detail the potential therapeutic indications and their level of scientific proof.