Laboratoire de qualité de l’eau et de l’environnement, Université Quisqueya, BP 796, Port-au-Prince, Haïti, Centre d’applications en télédétection et en systèmes d’informations géographiques, Université Quisqueya, BP 796, Port-au-Prince Haïti, Unité de recherche 077, Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Centre de Hann, Dakar Sénégal, Groupe haïtien d’étude du syndrome de Kaposi et des infections opportunistes (Gheskio), Institut national de laboratoire et de recherche, Port-au-Prince, Haïti, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York USA, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Centre hospitalier universitaire d’Amiens, Hôpital Sud, Service de parasitologie et mycologie médicales, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 France
- Key words: Cryptosporidium, drinking water, environmental exposure, Haiti, risk assessment
- DOI : 10.1684/ers.2007.0106
- Page(s) : 355-64
- Published in: 2007
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most frequent causes of diarrhoea in Haiti. Its transmission to humans, and in particular the groups at highest risk – children younger than five, people with HIV infection, and the undernourished – occurs through food and water containing Cryptosporidium oocysts. Recent studies demonstrate that the concentration of oocysts in 100 litres of the drinking water used by the population in Port-au-Prince (Haiti) ranges from 4 to 1,274 oocysts in 16 of the 18 water points sampled (89%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risks associated with this parasite in the drinking water of the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area. An exponential model was used to mark on the probability of an increasing infection. Four populations were considered: immunocompetent and immunodeficient children younger than five years, and immunocompetent and immunodeficient people five years or older. The risk of infestation in the immunocompetent portion of the population was 1% to 5%, and in the immunodeficient portion, 1% to 97%, according to the Cryptosporidium oocyst concentration. It is necessary to monitor and improve the microbiologic quality of drinking water to reduce the risk of human infections with pathogenic microorganisms related to biological pollution in Haiti.