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Néphrologie & Thérapeutique

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Renal involvement in Sjögren's syndrome Volume 16, issue 7, Décembre 2020

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Authors

Background

Little data are available for infants who started renal replacement therapy before 6 months of age. Because of extra-renal comorbidities and uncertain outcomes, whether renal replacement therapy in neonates is justified remains debatable.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who began chronic peritoneal dialysis below 6 months between 2007 and 2017 in two tertiary centres. Results are presented as median (min;max).

Results

Seventeen patients (10 boys) were included (8 prenatal diagnoses, 6 premies), with the following diagnoses: congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (n=9), oxalosis (n=5), congenital nephrotic syndrome (n=2) and renal vein thrombosis (n=1). Five patients had associated comorbidities. At peritoneal dialysis initiation, age was 2.6 (0.1;5.9) months, height-standard deviation score (SDS) −1.3 (−5.7;1.6) and weight-SDS −1.4 (−3.6;0.6). Peritoneal dialysis duration was 12 (2;32) months, and at peritoneal dialysis discontinuation height-SDS was −1.0 (−4.3;0.7) weight-SDS −0.7 (−3.2;0.2), parathyroid hormone 123 (44;1540) ng/L, and hemoglobin 110 (73;174) g/L. During the first 6 months of peritoneal dialysis, the median time of hospitalisation stay was 69 (15;182) days. Ten patients presented a total of 27 peritonitis episodes. Reasons for peritoneal dialysis discontinuation were switch to hemodialysis (n=6), transplantation (n=6), recovery of renal function (n=2) and death (n=1). After a follow-up of 4.3 (1.7;10.3) years, 12 patients were transplanted, 2 patients were still on peritoneal dialysis, 2 patients were dialysis free with severe chronic kidney disease and 1 patient had died. Seven patients displayed neurodevelopmental delay, of whom five needed special schooling.

Conclusion

We confirm that most infants starting peritoneal dialysis before 6 months of age will be successfully transplanted and will have a favourable growth outcome. Their quality of life will be impacted by recurrent hospitalisations and neurodevelopmental delay is frequent.

Aim

Aim of the study was to determine if carotid intima media thickness in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is greater than in healthy subjects, and to assess whether carotid intima media thickness in children with nephrotic syndrome is associated with clinical (including disease duration, cumulative dose of steroids, number of relapses) and biochemical parameters.

Methods

A cross-sectional study included 40 patients with nephrotic syndrome (mean age 11.7±4.7 years). Steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome was established in 32 patients (80%), while 8 (20%) had steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome. Control group consisted of 20 age and gender matched healthy children. Blood pressure based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), carotid intima media thickness, fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipid concentrations were measured in all children.

Results

A significant difference was detected in carotid intima media thickness values (P=0.036). Children with nephrotic syndrome had significantly greater carotid intima media thickness compared with healthy children (0.42±0.06 and 0.38±0.03mm). Carotid intima-media thickness was positively associated with duration of nephrotic syndrome (r=0.45; P=0.004), body mass index (r=0.48; P=0.002), daytime systolic blood pressure (r=0.46; P=0.003) and night-time systolic blood pressure (r=0.52; P=0.001). Multiple linear regression showed that duration of nephrotic syndrome was the only independent predictor of carotid intima media thickness in children with nephrotic syndrome (R2=0.244; β=0.327; P=0.037).

Conclusion

The findings of the present study suggest subclinical vascular damage in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Duration of nephrotic syndrome was the only independent predictor of carotid intima media thickness.

Le syndrome de Sjögren primitif est une maladie auto-immune caractérisée par une infiltration lymphoplasmocytaire des glandes exocrines (salivaires et lacrymales) entraînant le symptôme cardinal, qui est un syndrome sec buccal et oculaire. Les complications systémiques sont possibles, mais l’atteinte rénale est rare et affecte en général moins de 10 % des patients. L’atteinte rénale la plus spécifique et fréquente du syndrome de Sjögren primitif est la néphrite tubulo-interstitielle au cours de laquelle l’interstitium est infiltré par des lymphocytes et des plasmocytes de façon similaire à ce qui est observé dans les glandes exocrines. Des troubles hydroélectrolytiques peuvent survenir comme l’acidose tubulaire distale, le diabète insipide, le syndrome de Gitelman ou de Fanconi. L’atteinte glomérulaire est moins fréquente et correspond à une glomérulonéphrite membrano-proliférative secondaire à la cryoglobulinémie, qui est une complication classique du syndrome de Sjögren primitif. Le pronostic rénal des patients ayant une néphrite tubulo-interstitielle est en général favorable, mais le risque d’insuffisance rénale chronique reste élevé. Il est donc important que la néphrite tubulo-interstitielle soit dépistée tous les ans chez les patients ayant un syndrome de Sjögren primitif avec atteinte systémique. Nous abordons ici l’épidémiologie, la physiopathologie, les diagnostics différentiels et le traitement des atteintes rénales spécifiques au cours du syndrome de Sjögren primitif.

Primary Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the exocrine (salivary and lachrymal) glands resulting in sicca symptoms (dryness). Systemic complications can occur in primary Sjögren syndrome, but renal involvement is rare, affecting<10% patients. The most frequent form of nephropathy in primary Sjögren syndrome is tubulointerstitial nephritis, where infiltration of the kidney by plasma cells is a key feature and shows similarity to the lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the salivary glands. Electrolyte disturbances may occur in primary Sjögren syndrome, such as renal distal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, Gitelman syndrome, or Fanconi syndrome. Glomerular involvement is less frequently detected in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, but can take the form of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis secondary to cryoglobulinaemia. The renal prognosis in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and TIN or glomerular disease is usually good, but the risk of chronic kidney disease remains significant for some patients. Appropriate screening must be performed at least once a year in patients with systemic primary Sjögren syndrome in order to facilitate the early detection of renal complications. In this Review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of renal disease in primary Sjögren syndrome.