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Seizures, epilepsy and HIV infection in Africa Volume 22, issue 2, avril-mai-juin 2010

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Authors
Service de neurologie, hôpital Laquintinie de Douala, département de médecine interne et spécialités, faculté de médecine et des sciences biomédicales, université de Yaoundé-I, BP 4035 Douala, Cameroun, Service de neurologie, hôpital Gabriel-Touré, Bamako, Faculté de médecine, de pharmacie et d'odontostomatologie de Bamako, université de Bamako, Bamako, Mali

Seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). They are more common in advanced stage of the disease. Opportunistic infections such as toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, stroke, metabolic and electrolyte disturbances are common causes of new-onset seizures in HIV-seropositive individuals. In the absence of any cause, primary HIV infection may be considered responsible for seizures. The treatment of HIV-infected individuals with seizures comprises antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), specific treatment of the underlying conditions, and antiretroviral drugs. The choice of AEDs should take into account those that have limited protein binding, have no effects on the hepatic enzyme system and does not increase viral replication.