Résumé : Nutritional maternal imprinting is a well known process, included in DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases) concept. Maternal environment during periconceptional and foetal period may alter structure and/or functions of many organs and/or cells of the conceptus and predispose offspring to further develop pathologies, such as metabolic disorders. Epidemiological study and experimental data in animals have highlighted that maternal malnutrition during periconceptional and foetal period may also impact on reproductive functions of male and female offspring. Effects of maternal nutrition have been observed as soon as foetal stage on gonadal differentiation and development. It also impacts on onset of puberty, gamete quality, hormonal status and fertility in adulthood. Mechanisms involved in these phenomena are not completely understood. However, maternal hormonal status in periconceptional period, oxidative stress and epigenetic imprinting are likely to play a critical role.