Université Lille-Nord de France et laboratoire d’hématologie, CHU de Lille, et Inserm U837 et North-west cancéropôle, Lille, Service des maladies du sang, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris
Acute myeloid leukemia represents a very heterogeneous group of cancers in terms of genotype and phenotype. This heterogeneity is clinically suggested by variable enghts of remission after chemotherapy, lasting from few weeks to definitive remission. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improves the outcome of some patients. Currently, cytogenetics remains a primordial prognostic factor. Recently, advances in molecular biology led to a better comprehension of leukemogenesis. The purpose of this review is to resume the latest advances in molecular biology that allow to refine the prognostic evaluation of patients with AML, but also to track more specific and sensitive minimal residual disease and to identify new therapeutic targets. We also propose a scheme to detect molecular abnormalities, which can influence the prognosis and the treatment of the patients.