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Effects of European Standards Euro IV and V on the health impacts of urban road traffic in France. Part 2: Estimated fraction of NO2 and PM10 concentrations in urban air attributable to traffic emissions Volume 9, issue 1, Janvier-Février 2010

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VNC BP 21  78670 Villennes sur Seine, LRPC-Lille CETE Nord-Picardie 2, rue de Bruxelles BP275 59019 Lille cedex, Laboratoire d’Aérologie OMP 14 avenue Edouard Belin 31400 Toulouse, France, Geovariances 49bis avenue Franklin Roosevelt BP 91 77212 Avon Cedex, France, Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation 10 rue Daguerre 92500 Rueil-Malmaison, Ademe 27, rue Louis-Vicat 75737 Paris cedex 15,  France
  • Key words: adult, air pollution, child, elderly, environmental exposure, France, nitrogens dioxide, vehicule emissions
  • DOI : 10.1684/ers.2010.0321
  • Page(s) : 39-50
  • Published in: 2010

The objectives of this study were to produce data on exposure to air pollutants that would enable us to estimate the health impacts attributable to road traffic in French urban areas and to assess the effects of the EURO IV and V standards on the levels of NO 2 and PM 10 in these areas. The method includes several modelling steps and the integration of their results into a geographic information system. The data come from the French air quality monitoring network (RSQA), the 1999 population census, emissions registries and road traffic inventories. Calculations produced estimates for 2000 and 2010 by 44 km squares in a grid covering continental France for air concentrations of NO 2 and PM 10, the portion of each attributable to road traffic and the number of exposed people, by age group. Between 2000 and 2010 the number of kilometres travelled by the motor vehicle fleet in France will increase by 17% in urban areas and 30% in interurban areas. Over the same time, the consumption of fuel will increase but more slowly: 13% in urban and 26% in interurban zones. Approximately 75% of the French population lives in urban areas, which account for only 14% of the land surface. The annual average PM 10 concentration due to road traffic in urban areas in 2000 was 8.30 µg/m3 and it represented 42% of the annual average ambient air concentration. For NO 2, these values were 11.54 µg/m3 and 56%. Estimates for 2010 calculate PM 10 at respectively 4.73 µg/m3 and 34%, and NO 2 at 6.98 µg/m3 and 47%. The main uncertainties lie in the estimation of the portion attributable to road traffic in each square of the grid and concern the projections for 2010. These uncertainties are propagated without amplification in the sequence of the modelling phases and do not seem affected by a systematic bias. The data detailed by the squares for urban areas can thus be used in the following phase of the project, to estimate the health impacts in urban zones attributable to road traffic. We conclude that the application of the EURO IV and V standards to the circulating vehicle fleet has contributed to a decrease in mean national urban exposure to PM 10 and NO 2 (of 43% and 40% respectively), a diminution greater than that attributable to emissions sources in urban zones overall (28% and 27%).