Unité de virologie et immunologie moléculaires (UR0892),
France, Hôpital Necker-Enfants malades,
Inserm, unité 1013,
149, rue de Sèvres,
France, Université Paris-Descartes,
faculté de médecine,
Sorbonne – Paris-Cité,
Influenza is a very common and contagious respiratory disease where viral virulence can lead to the hospitalization of the individual. The emergence of new viruses and pandemics risks increase the need to improve our knowledge on the interaction of the host with the influenza virus (IAV). In particular, it is necessary to understand how the immune system is activated when it encounters the pathogen and how it controls influenza infection. Innate immune cells play a critical role in controlling the infection by influenza virus. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the cellular partners of the immune system that are involved in the recognition of IAV, and particularly on the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the initiation of anti-influenza immune responses. We will also discuss the role of different lysosomal proteases in the activation and maturation of TLRs during influenza infection.