Résumé : The authors have recently demonstrated that natriuretic peptides (NPs) activate a newly discovered lipolytic pathway in human adipocytes. This pathway operates specifically in primates. NPs mediate their effect through a receptor NPR‐A possessing a guanylyl‐cyclase activity. NPR‐A activation promotes intracellular cGMP accumulation. They have characterized a cGMP‐dependent kinase that phosphorylates both perilipins and hormone‐sensitive lipase, which is thus activated. This pathway is clearly independent from the other lipolytic pathways. An homologous desensitization has been demonstrated both
in vitro and
in vivo. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a potent lipid‐mobilizing factor when infused
in situ directly in the subcutaneous adipose tissue via a microdialysis probe. This lipid‐mobilizing effect is improved after aerobic training or a low‐calorie diet. ANP contributes to the physiological activation of lipid‐mobilization during physical exercise. Hyperactivity of the NP‐dependent pathway in adipose tissue could take place in the pathophysiology of cachexia or could protect against fat accumulation. A chronic hypoactivity of this pathway could contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity.