The aim of this study was to assess the impact of extraction of third molars on the occurrence of temporo-mandibular disorders (TMD). A review of the literature and a case-control study have been conducted. The case-control study compares the frequency of extraction of third molars between the sample with TMD (case) and the sample without TMD (control). The proportion of patients who had undergone extractions of wisdom teeth was higher in the case group than in the control group. The difference was statistically significant when patients had undergone extraction of all four wisdom teeth or when the extraction of four wisdom teeth underwent in one sitting or under general anesthesia. The study of patients in case sample shows that all signs of TMD were more common in patients who had undergone extractions in several sessions and under local anesthesia. The temporomandibular joint sounds are significantly more frequent with local anesthesia. In the case group, 85 to 92% of patients have parafunctions and 5 to 11% have malocclusion. This demonstrates the multifactorial etiology of temporomandibular disorders.