Département d’orthodontie, Faculté d’Odontologie, rue Guillaume Paradin, 69372 Lyon cedex 08, France
Centre de Traitements Dentaires, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 6-8 place Depéret, 69365 Lyon cedex 03, France
143 rue Baraban, 69003 Lyon, France
Médipôle Lyon-Villeurbanne, 158 Rue Léon Blum, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
56 rue de la République, 69150 Décines-Charpieu, France
Introduction: Positional plagiocephaly (PP) is characterized by an asymmetrical flatness of the posterior part of the skull which may involve the frontal part of the skull and the face. The aim is to assess whether children and adolescents with PP have more occlusal and skeletal asymmetries and whether the need for orthodontic treatment is greater than in the healthy population. Material and Method: A comparative cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out. One hundred children and adolescents were included: 50 in the PP group and 50 in the control group. The need for orthodontic treatment was assessed by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The mandibular and dental asymmetries were measured on lateral cephalometry by two indexes: index of mandibular asymmetry (IMA) and index of dental asymmetry (IDA) respectively. Chi2 and Student independence tests were performed with a threshold of 5%. Results: The tests are significant for IMA (p = 0.02) and IOTN (p = 0.000012). IDA is insignificant. Discussion: Orthosurgical treatment of mandibular laterognathies by mandibular recentering sometimes creates mandibular asymmetry, while the shift is basal. We must be able to act early on the vault of the skull to hope to obtain a consecutive effect on the base and therefore on the position of the glenoid cavities. Management by manual therapy and early cranial orthosis could be estimated. Conclusion: The need for orthodontic treatment is significantly greater in PP. Unlike mandibular asymmetry, dental asymmetry is not significantly greater than in the control group, testifying to the adaptive capacities of the organism.