L'Orthodontie Française


La déglutition dysfonctionnelle a-t-elle une influence sur la posture ? Volume 79, issue 2, Juin 2008

1 Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire de Lille, 1 place de Verdun, 59000
Lille, France
2 UFR Odontologie de Reims, rue du Général Koenig, 51100 Reims,
3 Laboratoire Neurosciences Fonctionnelles et Pathologies,
UMR 8160, CNRS, 6 rue du Professeur Laguesse, CHRU de Lille, 59037 Lille
Cedex, France
* orthem@free.fr

Swallowing is one of the first functions to be set up in utero for vital reasons. Physiological and psychic maturation then occur to lead from a dysfunctional to a functional state. Nevertheless, for certain individuals, maturation is incomplete, and swallowing remains dysfunctional. The clinical literature has already proven the incidence of a dental change of occlusion and the consequences of a lingual dysfunction upon posture. This work proposes to show that the posture can be affected by dysfunctional deglutition because of the lack of dental contacts during this function and because of the lingual dysfunction which characterizes it. We studied a population of 20 young adults, divided into two groups: a group of subjects presenting with a functional swallowing, and a group of subjects presenting with a dysfunctional swallowing. The experimental protocol includes four conditions: mandibular rest, cognitive task of articulation, functional swallowing, dysfunctional swallowing. Their effect on the posture is evaluated by means of a standardized stabilometric platform, and is supplemented by an electromyographic study of a manducator muscle (the masseter) and of a muscle of the cephalic posture (the sternocleidomastoid). The results show that swallowing would have the same postural effects as the cognitive task by increasing the postural oscillations and the energy spent by the postural system. Furthermore, the deglutition would have increased effects when it corresponds to a forced deglutition for the subject.