INSERM UMR996 - Inflammation, Chemokines and Immunopathology, Clamart, France
Hôpital de la Timone, service d’hépato-gastroentérologie, 264 rue Saint-Pierre13385 Marseille cedex, France
Univ Paris-Sud, Univ Paris-Saclay, DHU Hepatinov, Labex Lermit, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
AP-HP, Hôpital Antoine-Béclère, service d’hépato-gastroentérologie et nutrition, 157 rue de la Porte de Trivaux, F-92141 Clamart cedex, France
Recent advances in the intestinal microbiota (IM) knowledge provide emerging evidence that dysbiosis plays a role in several diseases in hepato-gastroenterology. The inequality regarding the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients encourages the identification new risk factors. Dysbiosis may play a role in several signaling pathways involved in liver carcinogenesis, as described in various animal models. The passage through the portal circulation of bacterial compounds such as lipopolysaccharides may result in chronic inflammation and promote HCC. The metabolic function of the IM, altered by dysbiosis, may cause the production of xeno- or endobiotics, especially certain secondary bile acids, which may play a direct or indirect role in liver carcinogenesis. The identification of specific intestinal bacteria species, such as Helicobacter Hepaticus, whose presence is associated with the development of HCC in mice exposed to aflatoxin B1, would help in the early identification of high-risk patients and the development of new target in HCC treatment.