Unité de thérapie cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 75010 Paris, INSERM, U 553, 75010 Paris, Université Paris 7, IUH, 75010 Paris
Mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, are multipotent stem cells that are easily isolated in human, particularly from the bone marrow. Recent experimental data, mainly from in vitro studies, suggest that mesenchymal stem cells can evade immune recognition and inhibit immune responses. These data have potential important consequences in cell therapy for the management of severe graft versus host disease or autoimmune diseases resistant to classic treatments. On the other side, several data suggest that mesenchymal stem cells could acquire a transformed phenotype and could potentiate the growth of tumor cells. The state of the experimental data and of the cell therapy protocols in this field will be described in this review.