European Journal of Dermatology


A case of bullous pemphigoid in a malignant melanoma patient following an increased Th2/Th1 ratio in peripheral blood cells after nivolumab treatment Volume 33, issue 5, September-October 2023


  • Figure 1.
Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Hinayana, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan
* <hontetsu@hama-med.ac.jp><fukuchi@hama-med.ac.jp>

Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are widely used to treat various malignancies, including malignant melanoma. Anti-PD-1 antibodies enhance anti-tumour immune responses of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. However, the non-specific activation of T cell-mediated immune responses causes diverse types of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) [1], including bullous pemphigoid (BP). IrAEs occur even after discontinuation of [...]