Département de radiothérapie, Institut Curie, 26, rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris.
Radiation induced tumors are a possible (very) late complications of radiotherapy. The evaluation of the risks of radiation-induced tumors has been presented in different epidemiological studies, with the evaluation of the relative risk for different tissues. But, the genetic studies are rare, and no global theory exists. Two cytogenetic profiles are described, one with translocations and one with genetic material losses, evoking two different genetic evolutions. Two questions are stated. What are the radiation-induced genetic mechanisms? Is it possible to differentiate the radiation-induced and spontaneous tumors with genetic approaches? With 37 cytogenetic cases, 12 analyzed in our laboratory, the radiation-induced tumors were characterized by genetic material losses. An anti-oncogenic evolution is probable. A new molecularly study confirm these results. Only thyroid tumors do not have this evolution. For tumors with simple karyotype, like meningioma, radiation-induced tumors seem to be more complex than spontaneous tumors. But for the others, the differentiation is impossible to be done with cytogenetic. The mechanism of the chromosomic material losses in unknown, but some hypothesis are discussed.