UMR1161 de virologie Inra-Afssa -Enva, Unité Virologie et Barrière d’espèces, 23, avenue du Général-de-Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort
Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a cardiovirus of Picornaviridae family. It has a word wide distribution and affects a wide range of domestic and wild animal species mainly rodents, pigs and non-human primates. Depending on the virus strain and the infected host, the virus can induce myocarditis, reproductive failure, diabetes or nervous disorders. The importance of EMCV as a cause of disease in humans is unknown. However, its wide host range and its biological characteristics make this virus a potential zoonotic agent. Furthermore, several direct and indirect arguments, suggest that human infections cannot be discarded. This review summarises the current knowledge on the molecular biology, the pathogenicity and the zoonotic aspects of this virus.