UMR754 Rétrovirus et pathologie comparée, Institut national de la recherche agronomique, Université Lyon 1, 50, avenue Tony-Garnier. 69366 Lyon Cedex 07 Ecole nationale vétérinaire de Lyon, IFR128 BioSciences Lyon-Gerland, Lyon, Centre de référence des maladies orphelines pulmonaires, Hôpital Louis-Pradel, Lyon
JSRV (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus) is a betaretrovirus, infecting small ruminants. This virus is responsible for the development of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, by the transformation of epithelial cells of the bronchioli and alveoli. This animal cancer is related to human bronchioloalveolar cancer (BAC), a specific form of human lung cancer for which a viral etiology has been proposed for several decades. In small ruminants JSRV interacts with the cells through the Hyal2 receptor. JSRV genome is simple and does not contain already known oncogene. It is now well established that the envelope protein is oncogenic by itself, via the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein and some domains of the surface glycoprotein. Activation of the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways participates to the envelope-induced transformation. The tumour development is associated with telomerase activation.