Résumé : The “human characteristics of aridity” are at the centre of developments in arid environments. This paper focuses especially on labour, as an essential input in an emblematic arid area of Chile, made particular by the development of an export-oriented agriculture. The limited availability of the labour force, crucial for production of fruit, has led to dynamics and strategies aimed at meeting the needs for workers of export-oriented agricultural companies. Hence, the emergence of new stakeholders and new mobilities are transformations linked with the growth of this agro-exporting industry. Based on an empiric study led in Limari province (Chile) with the key stakeholders of this labor market, this article shows the new mobilities and the new dynamics which are specific to an export-oriented agriculture in an arid environment.