Cahiers d'études et de recherches francophones / Santé


Food crops in Sahelian countries: Assessment and challenges Volume 16, issue 4, Octobre-Novembre-Décembre 2006


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INRA-SAE2 / UMR MOISA, 2, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1, doctorant Agro-M/UMR MOISA, 2, place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1

Twenty-five years after the beggining of the policies of adjustment and liberalization which is the situation of the food crops in the countries of the Sahel? The balance-sheet is approached by contrasting the cereals sub sector, facing to a very strong control by the State, and the onion whose growth is related to the increase in the demand of the great urban centers. The increase in the production of cereals was accompanied by deep changes in the structures. The market became more efficient and better integrated on a regional scale. But, the level and the instability of the prices of cereals increased, making difficult the provisioning of the poor. Clear differences in trajectories appear. Mali, which implemented a policy of reforming cereals market and successful the revival of rice sector, must manage at the same time the improvement of the competitiveness of its cereals and the access to cereals of the low incomes consumers. Niger must face the increase in the vulnerability of a great part of the rural households. The production of onion experienced a spectacular increase in Senegal after the devaluation of franc FCA in response to the urban market. That of Niger intended mainly for the close countries progressed more slowly. But in both cases, the regulation of the European onion imports constitutes a paramount stake.