Sleep Apnea Surgery Center, 1900 University Avenue, Suite 105, East Palo Alto, CA, États-Unis
Médecine du développement, Cours de recherche sur la santé, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japon
School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco, 707 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, États-Unis
Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 3165 Porter Dr, Palo Alto, CA 94304, États-Unis
Décédé. Sleep Medicine Division, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 3165 Porter Dr, Palo Alto, CA 94304, États-Unis
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nasomaxillary expansion using skeletally anchored transpalatal distraction (TPD) in children without transverse maxillary deficiency that were previously treated by rapid palatal expansion (RPE). Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine consecutive children were treated by TPD. Twenty-five children, aged 10-16 years completed pre- and post-operative clinical evaluations, questionnaires (OSA-18), cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and polysomnography (PSG). The pre- and post-operative CBCT data were used to reconstruct the 3-dimensional shape of the upper airway. Two measures of airflow function (pressure and velocity) were simulated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at four different airway segments (nasal, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal). Results: Twenty-three patients (92%) experienced improvement based on PSG. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) improved from 6.72 ± 4.34 to 3.59 ± 5.11 (p<0.001) events per hour. Clinical symptoms based on OSA-18 scores were improved in all patients. Twenty-five patients (100%) had successful expansion defined as separation of the midpalatal suture at least 1mm from anterior nasal spine (ANS) to posterior nasal spine (PNS). The nasal sidewall widening was 2.59 ± 1,54 mm at canine, 2.91 ± 1,23 mm at first molar and 2.30 ± 1,29 mm at PNS. The ratio of dental expansion to nasal expansion was 1.12:1 (2.90mm:2.59mm) at canine and 1.37:1 (3.98mm:2.91mm) at first molar. The nasal airflow pressure reduced by 76% (-275.73 to -67.28 Pa) and the nasal airflow velocity reduced by over 50% (18.60 to 8.56 m/s). Conclusions: Nasomaxillary expansion by skeletally anchored TPD improves OSA in children without transverse maxillary deficiency that were previously treated by RPE. A nearly parallel anterior-posterior opening of the mid-palatal suture achieves enlargement of the entire nasal passage with improvement of the airflow characteristics in the nasal and pharyngeal airway. The improved airflow characteristic is significantly correlated with the improved polysomnographic findings, thus demonstrating that nasomaxillary expansion in previously expanded patients is a viable treatment option.