Objectives: The objective of this literature review is to investigate whether the gender of patients and practitioners makes any difference to orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: Sixty-nine articles were selected, the vast majority of which studied patient gender. Results: Young females are the category of patients which most often apply for orthodontic treatment, probably because of their higher aesthetic demands, despite their objective needs being no greater. Aesthetic, skeletal and dental analyses reveal an obvious dimorphism with larger dimensions in males, especially for the nose, cheekbones, mouth and mandibular canines. Nevertheless, cephalometric angular values do not vary significantly between male and female individuals. Growth is quantitatively greater in males. It also occurs later, as does eruption and maturation of their teeth. Response to the different orthodontic / orthopedic therapies would appear not to differ according to the sex of the patient. Discussion: These results, however, need to be qualified according to the country concerned, the patients’ life style and mind frames, as these can modify or influence the studied parameters.