Magnesium Research


Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects Volume 25, issue 1, March 2012

Leviev Heart Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, IntraCellular Diagnostics, Inc., Medford, Oregon, USA

The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg 2+] i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53 ± 8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg 2+] i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9 ± 4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg 2+] i (34.4 ± 3 versus 36.3 ± 2 mEq/L, p<0.001 and 34.7 ± 2 versus 35.4 ± 2 mEq/L, p=0.097; respectively), reduced total cholesterol (201 ± 37 versus 186 ± 27 mg/dL, p=0.016 and 187 ± 28 versus 187 ± 25 mg/dL, p=0.978; respectively) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (128 ± 22 versus 120 ± 25 mg/dL, p=0.042 and 120 ± 23 versus 121 ± 22 mg/dL, p=0.622; respectively). Noteworthy is that both treatments significantly reduced epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation (78.9 ± 16% versus 71.7 ± 23%, p=0.013 and 81.3 ± 15% versus 73.3 ± 23%, p=0.036; respectively). Thus, oral magnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg 2+] i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.