Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium acetate on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses of morphine. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs (jumping or standing events, diarrhea, piloerection, tremor and ptosis). Separate oral administration of magnesium (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg) and calcium (500, 750 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the jumping, without affecting standing in animals withdrawn from morphine. Co-administration of magnesium (at a fixed dose of 100 mg/kg) and calcium (at a range of doses from 250 to 1,000 mg/kg) resulted in a significant reduction in jumping and standing events (P<0.05). In a similar fashion, the qualitative signs of withdrawal were also reduced when the above combination of calcium and magnesium was administered. Co-administration of calcium/magnesium at 500/50, 750/75 and 1,000/100 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of jumps in morphine-dependent animals without affecting the number of standing events. This study demonstrates the potential activity of the co-administration calcium and magnesium in preventing the signs associated with morphine withdrawal syndrome.