Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Canada
Department of Neurosurgery, Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan
Correspondence: Tomohiro Yamazoe
Department of Neurosurgery,
Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital,
2-12-12, Simiyoshi, Nala-ku,
Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan
We present a rare patient clinically suspected to have mixed idiopathic generalized and focal epilepsy, which was supported by BOLD pattern based on EEG-fMRI. A 37-year-old female with three types of refractory seizures starting at age six - tonic with breathing difficulties and confusion, generalized tonic-clonic, and focal with brief impairment of awareness and versive head movement, initially thought to represent atypical absences - was evaluated by EEG-fMRI. She was also shown to have three types of interictal epileptic discharges: generalized spike or polyspikes and slow waves, and left fronto-temporal and right fronto-temporal discharges. We assessed BOLD activation and deactivation for each type. For generalized patterns, the BOLD activation and deactivation were typical of that seen in primary generalized epilepsy. Whereas maximum activation for left fronto-temporal EEG patterns was observed in the left superior frontal gyrus and posterior superior temporal gyrus, maximum activation for right fronto-temporal patterns was bilateral in the right posterior middle temporal gyrus and left posterior middle temporal gyrus. The EEG-fMRI results suggested that the patient had both refractory idiopathic generalized and focal epilepsy, and not a generalized epilepsy originating from a focus.