The Leviev Cardiothoracic & Vascular Center, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
The Academic College at Wingate, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel
Modern life and the Western industrial diet has enhanced the reduction of magnesium in our food, which may contribute to a marginal or absolute magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency is evident in, among others, the elderly population, those after myocardial infarction and/or chronic heart failure, and diabetics. In Israel, over 60% of the drinking water originates from desalinated seawater lacking magnesium, which may cause hypomagnesemia. Magnesium deficiency can easily be treated by magnesium supplementation if we are aware of the situation. This paper summarizes the magnesium chapter in a position paper published in April 2021 by the Israeli Cardiology Society together with the Israeli Dietetic Association. It summarizes evidence-based nutritional recommendations for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations according to the European Society of Cardiology definitions. The best recommendation is to increase consumption of magnesium-rich food, such as leafy green vegetables (mainly spinach), nuts, avocado, whole grains, legumes (e.g., beans, peas and soy beans), chocolate and certain seafood. However, for people who do not get sufficient magnesium from their diet completing the daily amount, as needed, with supplements of up to 600 mg/day should be considered. In addition, serum magnesium levels should be checked at least every six months in patients with heart failure, people taking diuretic therapy, and people taking proton-pump inhibitors. In addition, it may be beneficial to add magnesium following myocardial infarction in people with hypertension and in heart failure patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (class of recommendation IIa, level of evidence B).