European Cytokine Network


Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in patients with acute and chronic calculus cholecystitis Volume 34, numéro 3, September 2023


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1 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wenzhou Seventh People’s Hospital, Wenzhou, China
2 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Wenzhou Central Hospital, Wenzhou, China
* Correspondence: X. Chen


Relatively little is known about the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokines and calculus cholecystitis (CC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between serum Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression and CC, including both acute and chronic cases.


In total, 102 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis (CCC), 64 patients with acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC), and 55 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited for the study. Serum concentration of Th1 (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) was measured at admission and on the fifth day after cholecystectomy using flow cytometry. In addition, the ratio of IL-6/IL-10 was calculated. Correlation of the corresponding factors was then analysed, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent markers of ACC severity.


Compared to HCs, CCC patients exhibited significantly elevated expression levels of IL-6 and IL-10, while ACC patients demonstrated higher expression of IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-6/ IL-10 in addition to IL-6, and IL-10. In ACC patients, there was a strong positive correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 concentration, the expression of IL-2 was observed to positively correlate with serum ALT and AST concentration, and TNF-α expression positively correlated with the duration of hospitalization. Moreover, patients with moderate-to-severe ACC presented with higher expression of IL-10 compared to those with mild ACC. Cox regression analysis confirmed that IL-10 and IL-6 were independent factors for the severity of ACC. Following surgery, the levels of IL-6 and IL-6/IL-10 significantly decreased but did not fully return to baseline levels in ACC patients.


Our study reveals atypical Th1/Th2 cytokine expression profiles in patients with acute and chronic CC, and further highlights the significant potential of these cytokines, particularly IL-6 and IL-10, in assessing the severity and progression of CC.