1) Which features of acute encephalitis have been independently predictive of drug resistance?
A. Focal seizures during the acute phase.
B. Status epilepticus.
C. Hyperintensity of mesial temporal structures on T2-weighted MRI and gadolinium enhancement.
D. Herpes simplex virus infections.
E. All of the above.
2) What type of epilepsy surgery is most common for patients with refractory epilepsy post cerebral infection:
A. Temporal lobe resections, including resection of the mesial temporal structures.
B. Extratemporal resections, particularly for parasitic brain infections.
C. Hemispherectomy/hemispherotomy, particularly for severe hemispheric injury with contralateral hemiparesis.
3) Post-encephalitis epilepsy is commonly associated with viruses:
A. Causing leptomeningeal enhancement and lesions in the brain stem or spinal cord.
B. Causing damage mainly to subcortical structures, as in Japanese encephalitis.
C. Causing cortical lesions, as in HSV or mycoplasma encephalitis.
4) A suspicion of HSV reactivation after epilepsy surgery should be raised when the patient presents:
B. Focal or generalized seizures within the first two weeks after surgery.
C. MRI findings of oedema, diffusion restriction, and abnormal enhancement.
D. All of the above.
5) Which of the following statements regarding NCC-associated epilepsy are true?
A. The majority of NCC patients present with epileptic seizures.
B. NCC-associated epilepsy remains drug-resistant in most cases.
C. The recurrence rate after AED withdrawal is higher for single non-calcified lesions.
D. It is unclear whether NCC-related calcified lesions are causative of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, irrespective of the co-occurrence of hippocampal sclerosis.
(1) A, B, C.
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