Bursa Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Turkey
Istanbul Bahcelievler State Hospital Department of Cardiology, Turkey
Bursa Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Turkey
Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant intracellular cation and plays a significant role in immune system and cardiac protection. Mg deficiency contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation leading to cardiovascular diseases, and low Mg level exacerbates virus-induced inflammation.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether serum magnesium level is associated with myocardial damage and prognosis of COVID-19.
This was a single-center, observational retrospective study of patients with COVID-19. The study population was divided into two groups according to in-hospital mortality: a survivor group (SG) and a non-survivor group (NSG). Myocardial damage was defined as blood levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) above the 99th percentile upper reference limit. Magnesium, variables regarding inflammation, and myocardial damage were compared between the groups.
A total of 629 patients with COVID-19 were included. Mortality rate was 11.85% (n = 82). There were 61 (74.4%) and 294 male patients (53.7%) in NSG and SG, respectively (p = 0.001). The median age of NSG was 64.5 years (min-max: 37–93) and the median age of SG was 56.0 years (min-max: 22–92) (p < 0.001). Median serum magnesium levels of NSG and SG were 1.94 mg/dL (min-max: 1.04-2.87) and 2.03 mg/dL (min-max: 1.18–2.88), respectively (p = 0.027). Median cTnI levels of NSG and SG were 25.20 pg/mL (min-max: 2.10–2240.80) and 4.50 pg/mL (min-max: 0.50–984.3), respectively (p < 0.001). The cTnI levels were lower in those patients whose serum Mg levels were higher than 1.94.
Although serum magnesium level was not a predictor for in-hospital mortality, there was a significant negative correlation between magnesemia and myocardial damage.