Department of Dermatology,
University of Tsukuba,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Department of Medical Oncology,
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Enhancement of anti-tumour immunity has led to substantial progress in the treatment of melanoma. Two types of immune checkpoint inhibitors, ipilimumab, targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and pembrolizumab and nivolumab, targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), are now available.
Treatment with these agents can cause immune system-related adverse events (IRAEs) that manifest as pneumonitis, colitis, pancreatitis, hypothyroidism or hepatitis (i.e. hepatic IRAE) [1-3]. [...]