Figure 1 Neoplastic cells tend to have high intracellular
concentrations of magnesium, which contribute to the regulation of
various metabolic pathways and of systems involved in DNA repair,
thus providing a selective advantage for the transformed cells. The
figure also links the effects of high intracellular concentrations
of magnesium on cell functions to some hallmarks of cancer as
highlighted by Hanahan and Weinberg [14, 15].
Figure 2 In mice, magnesium deficiency participates both
in early and in late phases of tumorigenesis. Initiation: low
magnesium promotes oxidative stress and inflammation, which
generate genetic instability and increases the risk of mutations.
Mutations might generate the so-called “initiated” cell, which is
potentially capable of triggering a tumor. Progression: once the
tumor has developed, the persistence of oxidative stress and
inflammation might generate further mutations that facilitate
metastatic spreading, in the face of an inhibition of primary tumor