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Selected abstracts of VII th Romanian Magnesium Symposium


Magnesium Research. Volume 24, Numéro 1, 22-6, March 2011, Abstracts

DOI : 10.1684/mrh.2011.0272


ARTICLE

mrh.2011.0272

Selected abstracts of VIIth Romanian Magnesium Symposium 8-9 October 2010 Bucharest, Romania

Hypomagnesaemia exacerbates nonspecific inflammation in cardio-cerebrovascular disease - relationships with inflammatory markers

I. A. Guţiu1, L. I. Guţiu2

1 Medical Emergencies, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest; 2 Neurology Department, Emergency Military Hospital, Bucharest, Romania

Purpose. We proposed to analyze relationships between hypomagnesiaemia (hMg) both with traditional atherosclerosis factors (such as dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, hyperglycaemia, etc.) and chronic nonspecific inflammation from atherosclerosis (inflammation markers such as: serum fibrinogen (sF), ESR, leukocytosis, CRP, dental state (number of missing teeth- evidence of chronic persistent gum infections such as parodontitis/parodontosis). Methods. In a cross-sectional study 396 patients with cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction angor pectoris, stroke, arteritis) were analyzed; mean age: 58.6 ± 11.5 years; 164 (44%) were men. Mean serum magnesium (sMg) level: 2.12 ± 0.39 mg/100 mL, first tertile ≤1.75 mg/100 mL. Results. Significant statistical differences between the first and last sMg tertile were found for atherosclerosis risk factors: age (60.7 ± 11.7 in first tertile vs 57.2 ± 11.5 years in last tertile; p < 0.035), serum glucose (118.2 ± 46.9 vs 102.9 ± 30.2 mg/100 mL; p < 0.0001), body mass index (27.9 ± 5.8 vs 29.9 ± 6.1; p < 0.002), serum cholesterol (212.1 ± 53.4 vs 229.0 ± 54.8 mg/100 mL ; p < 0.017), systolic arterial tension (161.0 ± 17.4 vs 147.1 ± 21.8 mmHg; p < 0.0001), corporal height (163 ± 0.09 vs 167 ± 0.08 cm; p < 0.0001), and between risk factors linked to inflammation such as: missing teeth (16.0 ± 11.0 vs 14.0 ± 9.8; p < 0.008), sF (397.9 ± 111.5 vs 384.0 ± 116.0 mg/100 mL; p < 0.05), leukocytosis (6,900 ± 1,900 vs 7,500 ± 4,200; p < 0.029), ESR. (22.6 ± 2.5 vs 17.0 ± 9.8 mm/h; p < 0.001). Conclusions. Hypomagnesaemia is accompanied both of increased incidence of traditional risk factors and of low level inflammation markers (fibrinogen, ESR) in CVD. As novelty we found an increased number of missing teeth associated to hMg indicating a chronic exacerbated inflammatory state. It seems that missing teeth are implicated in atherogenesis in the presence of hMg. For a correct explanation we need complementary studies.

Magnesium involvement in oral pathology

M. Nechifor1, I. Grădinaru2

1 Pharmacology Department; 2 Dental Materials Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa” Iasi Romania

Magnesium is present in all tissues of the oral cavity and saliva. In case of different pathological states of the oro-maxillo-facial area, changes in magnesium serum, tissue and saliva concentration are often reported. Changes in saliva concentration of this cation can also be encountered in general pathology, not only in local diseases. Our data have shown important modifications of magnesium serum and saliva concentrations in patients with bacterial infections of the soft tissues in the oro-maxillo-facial area, parotid gland tumors, as well as in cases of malignant tumours of the soft tissues of the oro-maxillo-facial area. In patients with suppurations at the oro-maxillo-facial area level, our data showed a significant increase in total-magnesium saliva concentration (5.76 ± 0.76 mg/L vs 3.81 ± 0.65 mg/L in healthy control group p < 0.05), while salivary calcium concentration is not significantly influenced. In patients with malignant tumors of the oro-maxillo-facial area, total magnesium serum concentration is also increased compared to healthy control groups. In the parotid gland malignant tumors total-Mg concentrations from saliva increases (3.37 ± 0.60 mg/L in parotid tumor vs. 5.97 ± 1.03 mg/L in healthy group p < 0.01). The plasma magnesium level is also significantly increased and plasma zinc level decreased in patients with parotid tumors. The ratio between total serum calcium and total serum magnesium is also modified in patients with diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. Misbalances in serum and saliva concentrations of different bivalent cations play important roles in different pathologic states of the oro-maxillo-facial area. We consider that saliva concentration of bivalent cations should be constantly determined in clinical practice.

Changes of magnesium serum levels in patients with infectious diseases

M. Cojocaru1, C. Bălăeţ1, I. M. Cojocaru2, S. A. Iacob2, A. Udriştioiu3, S. Soare4, E. Rusu1, G. Băncescu2

1 “Titu Maiorescu” University, Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest; 2 “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest; 3 Emergency County Hospital Targu Jiu; 4 University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology Bucharest, Romania

Magnesium deficiency seems to be implicated in immune dysfunction, including acute and chronic infections. The serum levels of magnesium in 53 patients with acute bacterial and viral infections (29 men and 24 women with mean age 58.6 ± 4.7 years) were analyzed as compared to 36 healthy subjects. As magnesium is mainly an intracellular ion, assessment of magnesium status is difficult. Magnesium serum levels were determined by the colorimetric method. Data were compared with Student's t test and significance was assessed at p < 0.05. In bacterial infections (septicemia, pneumonia, erysipelas and meningitis) a statistically significant decrease 1.26 ± 0.12 vs 1.69 ± 0.14 mEq/L; (p < 0.001) of serum magnesium concentrations was found. In patients with viral infections, the decrease of serum magnesium levels is non-significant (1.64 ± 0.13 vs 1.69 ± 0.14 mEq/L). The onset of change in magnesium occurred within a few days and persisted for several weeks. These changes seem to be non-specific and are independent of the agent causing the bacterial infection. Patients with sepsis having a high degree of inflammation did not show a positive correlation between the severity of the disease and the changes of magnesium. In conclusion, the measurement of serum magnesium in bacterial infections is useful and physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for hypomagnesemia, and then should implement magnesium therapy.

Role of Mg2+ ion as cofactor ATP in assurance of energetic environment cells

A. Udriştioiu

Emergency County Hospital Targu Jiu, Targu Jiu, Romania

Biological membranes of human cells are impermeable to Mg2+ (and other ions) so the transport of proteins must facilitate the flow of Mg2+, both into and out of cells compartments. Mg2+ removes the water of hydration from cells and by removing most or all of the water by a selective pore it releases Mg2 ions on the side of the membrane. Similarly, magnesium plays a role in the stability of all polyphosphate ATP compounds in the cells, including to those associated with DNA and RNA synthesis in biological systems. The mechanisms of Mg2+ transport by the proteins are beginning to be uncovered with the first three dimensional structure of Mg2+ transport complex, recently discovered. Also, Mg plays a role in the synthesis of immunoglobulins. Particularly, magnesium-deficient mice have a significant impairment in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as is reflected by decreased immunoglobulin concentrations and decreased antibody plaque-forming in the spleen. Furthermore, through the Mg deficiency, the immune system can be compromised in human populations under certain circumstances, including athletes and elderly people. The importance of a balanced Mg homeostasis and its interaction with the immune system in these groups has also been reviewed in recent research.

Descriptive study on magnesium and calcium levels, health status and lifestyle in an elderly group

V. Papadopol, C. Cîmpeanu, N. Florescu, G. Albu, O. Damian

Regional Center of Public Health Iaşi, Romania

The aim of the study was to follow up the magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in an elderly group. The study group (155 subjects aged 60 years and more, 103 women) was selected by age from the patients of two general practitioners from Iasi city. Serum Mg, serum Ca and ionic Ca were higher in men than in women. Erythrocyte Mg did not differ between the sexes. Total cholesterol was higher in women. Concerning socio-economical status, the men had a higher educational level and better incomes compared with the women and were married in a higher proportion. The subjects, regardless of sex, had a pathology and very diverse medication. In women, a higher frequency of osteoporosis and allergies was found compared with men. The women undertook fewer moderate physical activities and consumed more coffee but the men consumed more alcoholic beverages and smoked more than women. The men consumed more pasta than women, but they consumed more dry vegetables. BMI was nonsignificantly higher in women (80.6 % versus 67.3 % in men). Our results suggest that Mg and Ca levels were associated with some factors with which they could interact. This requires new studies in a larger elderly groups and an analytical approach to the problem.

Uptake and retention of magnesium and other metal ions in different in vitro plant systems

M. Enache1, M. A. Radu-Popescu2, G. Băncescu2, M. Cojocaru3

1 University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, Faculty of Biotechnology, Bucharest; 2 “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest; 3 “Titu Maiorescu” University, Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania

Plant tissue culture is widely used in plant science today. The use of tissues and organs of plants cultured in vitro on an artificial, nutrient medium, has led to significant discoveries in biology and medicine. There are several advantages of using plant cell cultures as a test system for analysing the phytotoxicity, metabolism and mode of action of exogeneously applied chemicals. Based on existing literature on sunflower tissue culture (Paterson and Everett, 1985, Prado and Berville, 1990), a callus initiation test has been developed and used successfully in the quantitative determination of metal ion toxicity (Enache et al., 2003). This paper presents an analysis of the uptake and retention of Mg (II) and other essential and non-essential metal ions [K (I), Na (I), Ca (II), Cd (II), Cu (II), Li (I), Co (II), Mn (II), Ni (II), Zn (II)] in sunflower callus and discusses the role of the cell wall and other relevant cellular mechanisms available for cellular metal detoxification.

Molecular descriptors indicating the effect of atoms in magnesium compounds on biological processes

C. Lepădatu1, M. Enache2

1 Institute of Chemical Physics of the Romanian Academy, Bucharest; 2 University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Biotechnology, Bucharest, Romania

The physico-chemical properties of Mg2+ are important in its participation to the transport through biological membranes. The transport mechanisms depend on the 3-D structure of the complex formed through the hydration of Mg2+ ion in aqueous environments, where the inner shell is made of 6 water molecules relatively tightly bound, and the second shell is made of 12-14 water molecules. Therefore, the interaction of Mg2+ ion in the cellular system must consider the physical and chemical properties of the molecular complex formed through hydration of the Mg2+ ion. For the interaction of Mg complexes with biological targets, the electronegativity of the atoms in the molecular complex [Mg(H2O)6]2+ was chosen (Lepadatu et al. 2009) because electronegativity describes the ability of the atoms to gain or lose electrons from the valence shell. The aim of this work is to present some molecular descriptors representing the electronegativity of OMO (occupied molecular orbital) and UMO (unoccupied molecular orbital) quantum molecular states that could be used to obtain information on the mechanism of electron transfer between Mg compounds and the chemical moieties present in the cells. Such descriptors make it possible to obtain information regarding the role of the atoms in the metal complex (not only the role of the metal ion) on the biological effect, as well as an appreciation of the electronic density transfer between the Mg complex and the molecular species present in the cell.

Magnesium substitution therapy in patients with advanced atherosclerosis

C. M. Niculescu1, M. Cojocaru1, I. M. Cojocaru2

“Titu Maioresc” University, Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Recently, it has been demonstrated that low plasma levels of magnesium accelerate atherogenesis. Magnesium is also found in the central nervous system and in blood vessels. Evidence is mounting that low levels of magnesium contribute to cerebrovascular atherosclerosis and complications. Magnesium, a natural calcium antagonist, modulates vasomotor tone, blood pressure, and peripheral blood flow. Magnesium deficiency was shown to trigger vasoconstriction and enhance vascular endothelial injury, thus promoting the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Magnesium has been demonstrated to co-regulate cerebrovascular smooth muscle tone. The objective of this study was to assess the possible correlation between the low plasma levels of magnesium and the increased risk of stroke in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We studied serum magnesium levels in 57 patients with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke as compared to 54 controls. Serum total-Mg concentration was determined on a Roche/Hitachi analyzer with the use of the xylidyl blue reaction. We found that low magnesium serum levels were associated with an increased risk of stroke in patients advanced atherosclerosis (1.41 ± 0.15 vs 1.78 ± 0.17 mEq/L; p < 0.001). In conclusion, low Mg serum levels indicate an increased risk for stroke in patients with advanced atherosclerosis, favouring Mg substitution therapy in those patients. Supplementing your diet with a multivitamin containing magnesium, or eating magnesium-rich foods can reduce the risk of stroke in patients with advanced atherosclerosis.


 

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