University Clinic of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Correspondence: Emilija Cvetkovska
University Clinic of Neurology,
Ss. Cyril and Methodius University,
Vodnjanska str. 17, MK-1000,
Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II and hemimegalencephaly (HME) are currently considered as a continuum of pathology, the most important distinction being the extent or the size/volume of the lesion. While partial HME involving the posterior cortex has been well described, we present an unusual case with a dysplastic lesion of the whole frontal lobe. A 17-year-old boy had focal seizures from the age of nine years. Apart from diminished right-hand dexterity, his neurological and cognitive status were unremarkable. The course of his epilepsy exhibited a relapsing-remitting pattern, with prolonged periods of remission. Imaging showed dysplastic left frontal lobe (including paracentral lobule) thickened cortex with an abnormal gyration pattern resembling polymicrogyria, as well as dystrophic calcifications and hypodensity scattered throughout the white matter. This patient represents an intermediate case within the FCD type II/HME spectrum. Localization of the lesion in the frontal lobe as well as clinical characteristics (childhood onset, relapsing-remitting epilepsy, without hemiparesis and overt cognitive impairment) are more consistent with FCD type II, while a range of MRI features is shared between HME and FCD type II.