Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
Department of Clinical Investigation (Biostatics), Kumamoto University Hospital, Japan
Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
Deceased 13 March 2020.
Background: The microbiome plays an important role in the tumour microenvironment (TME). Objectives: In this study, we investigated the clinical significance of the microbiota in extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD). Materials & Methods: Patients with EMPD, treated between March 2007 and September 2019 at Kumamoto University Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. Inclusion criteria included: histological diagnosis of EMPD, inspection of the bacterial culture of the cancer lesion using swab sampling, and availability of sufficient tissue in paraffin blocks for immunohistochemistry. For the latter, primary antibodies against IL-17, CD163 and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) were used. Results: Bacterial cultures of the cancer lesion revealed that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was highly prevalent in EMPD patients, with dermal invasion or lymph node metastasis, compared to patients without these findings. Furthermore, the number of IL-17-positive cells and CD163-positive M2-like macrophages (pro-tumour macrophages) were increased in EMPD tissues with S. aureus. Moreover, the number of IL-17-producing cells in EMPD tissues positively correlated with the accumulation of CD163-positive M2-like macrophages. In addition, the percentage of CD163-positive cells within Iba-1-positive macrophages (total macrophages) was also significantly elevated in EMPD tissues with S. aureus. Conclusion: Based on these findings, S. aureus may exacerbate the pathological condition of EMPD via the accumulation of IL-17 and M2-like macrophages.