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Néphrologie & Thérapeutique

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Contrast-induced acute kidney injury Volume 17, issue 3, Etats des lieux dans l'HDF en 2022

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Authors

Introduction

Endothelial glycocalyx is a luminal layer which can be damaged by inflammatory agents or pathogens. The endothelial glycocalyx damage is thought to have a role in the formation of renal scars in children who have febrile urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux. This study aimed to compare the blood levels of endothelial glycocalyx components heparan sulfate and Syndecan-1 in children with and without renal scarring due to vesicoureteral reflux-associated febrile urinary tract infection.

Materials and methods

Data of the patients diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux without renal scarring (Group 1), patients with vesicoureteral reflux and renal scarring (Group 2), and completely healthy children (Group 3) were retrospectively reviewed. Blood levels of heparan sulfate and Syndecan-1 were measured and the results were compared.

Results

The entire cohort consisted of 90 patients; there were 30 patients in each group. Mean patient age was 49.7±18.0 months. Mean serum heparan sulfate (42.90±18.90 ng/mL) and Syndecan-1 (37.59±13.77 ng/mL) levels of Group 2 were significantly higher than those of other groups. The cut-off value for heparan sulfate was 35.17 ng/mL, with a 63% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The cut-off value for Syndecan-1 was 29.99 ng/mL with a 70% sensitivity and 80% specificity.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that blood levels of heparan sulfate and Syndecan-1 could be related with renal scarring in patients with vesicoureteral reflux, especially in the setting of febrile urinary tract infection. However, due to their low sensitivity, these biomarkers should be used along with clinical data.

Context

Fabry disease is a rare X-linked genetic disease due to pathogenic variants in the GLA gene. Classic Fabry disease is characterized by glycosphingolipids accumulation in all organs including the kidney, resulting in end-stage renal disease in a subset of male patients. Fabry disease should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained end-stage renal disease.

Objective

We performed a prospective screening study in Western France to determine the prevalence of Fabry disease in a large population of dialyzed and transplanted patients.

Patients and methods

Patients meeting the inclusion criteria (males, 18-70 years with end-stage renal disease of unknown or vascular origin) were selected from the REIN® registry and the CRISTAL® database. Screening on filter papers was performed after patient consent was obtained during either a dialysis session or a transplantation follow-up visit.

Results

One thousand five hundred and sixty-one end-stage renal disease male patients were screened and 819 consented (dialysis: n=242; transplant: n=577). One single patient was found with decreased alpha-galactosidase levels <25%. GLA sequencing identified the p.Phe113Leu variant in favor of an unknown superimposed kidney disease responsible for end-stage renal disease since this GLA pathogenic variant is associated with a later-onset cardiac form of Fabry disease with minimal kidney involvement. Family cascade genotyping revealed a previously undiagnosed affected brother.

Conclusion

The prevalence of Fabry disease in end-stage renal disease patients was 0.12%, questioning the efficacy of this screening strategy with respect to the low prevalence. However, beside the benefit for the patient and his family, the increased awareness of Fabry disease among participating nephrologists may be of interest for future patients.

La néphrotoxicité des produits de contraste iodés est définie par une insuffisance rénale aiguë survenant dans les 48 à 72 heures suivant l’injection de produit de contraste iodé, en absence d’autre étiologie. Les facteurs de risque de la néphrotoxicité des produits de contraste iodés doivent systématiquement être recherchés avant l’examen. La présence de facteurs de risque, notamment l’existence d’une insuffisance rénale définie par une clairance inférieure à 60 mL/min, nécessite de prendre des mesures de prévention, dont l’hydratation. Si la clairance de la créatinine est inférieure à 30 mL/min, l’avis d’un néphrologue est nécessaire.

The nephrotoxicity of iodinated contrast agent/media is defined by acute renal failure occurring within 48 to 72 hours after injection of iodized contrast product, in the absence of other etiology. The risk factors for contrast agent renal injury must systematically be sought before the exam. The presence of risk factors, including the existence of a renal failure defined by a creatinine clearance (eGFR) of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, requires to take prevention measures including hydration. If eGFR is less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, the advice of a nephrologist is necessary.