Néphrologie & Thérapeutique


Characteristics and prognosis of acute renal failure on dialysis in ANCA vasculitis Volume 20, issue 1, February 2024


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Hôpital Tenon, service de néphrologie, Paris, France
* Correspondance : S. Azria <azria.siham@gmail.com>

Renal involvement in ANCA (Anti Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antigen) vasculitis is common and is associated with increased mortality with a significant risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiological, clinicopathological, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of patients with ANCA vasculitis with acute renal injury, and to evaluate the impact of haemodialysis in the acute phase on mortality and renal recovery. Secondary objectives are to investigate other risk factors that impact on overall and renal survival. 31 patients were included ; the mean follow-up time was 30 months. The mean age was 68.52 years, and the sex ratio 0.72. All patients had acute renal failure, with histology revealing a mixed form in 45% of cases and a sclerotic form in 12.9% of cases. Pulmonary involvement was found in 58% of cases. 71% of patients had ANCA with anti-myeloperoxydase specificity, and 25.8% anti-proteinase 3 specificity. 32.2% of patients required haemodialysis, of which 60% were weaned. As initial treatment, 58.1% of patients received cyclophosphamide and 35.5% rituximab. The relapse rate was 6.5%. Infectious and cardiovascular complications affected more than half of the patients. The mortality rate was 19.35%. Comparing the two groups of patients dialysed in the acute phase and not dialysed, it appears that the overall and renal mortality was comparable. The progression to end-stage renal failure was higher in the dialysis patients. In a multivariate study, the presence of chronic kidney disease in the history and pulmonary involvement were associated with higher mortality.