John Libbey Eurotext

Journal de Pharmacie Clinique


Malaria: mode of action of chloroquine and mechanism of chloroquine resistance Volume 32, issue 3, Septembre 2013


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Institut national des plantes médicinales et aromatiques, Taounate, USMBA, Fès, Maroc

Malaria is the most dangerous and widespread parasitic disease in the world. It is caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the Plasmodium genus and transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This disease affects mainly children aged less than 5 years. Among the four species of malarial parasite which infect humans, Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most severe type of malaria according to the World health organization (WHO). Two strategies have been adopted against this endemic disease: the vector control method, using insecticides, and medication by anti-malarial drugs in both treatment and prophylaxis. However, the fight against malaria becomes more difficult due to mosquitoes resistance to insecticides and Plasmodium falciparum strains which have developed increasing resistance to most of available antimalarial drugs. Chloroquine (Nivaquine ®) was widely used as antimalarial drug and saved many lives for decades. But, the effectiveness of chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. This study explains malaria origin and presents Plasmodium evolution and chloroquine mode of action on parasite. Hypotheses on the chloroquine resistance mechanism and reversion of antimalarial drug resistance are reported.