John Libbey Eurotext

Hépato-Gastro & Oncologie Digestive

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Epidemiology and risk factors for stomach and oesogastric junction cancer Volume 26, issue 6, Juin 2019

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Authors
1 CHU Dijon Bourgogne, Service d’hépato-gastroentérologie et oncologie digestive, 14 rue Paul Gaffarel, 21000 Dijon
2 Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD), Digestive Cancers Registry of Burgundy, University Hospital Dijon, University of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, INSERM UMR 1231
* Correspondance

The incidence of stomach cancer decreases for 50 years in Western countries, but this cancer remains frequent and severe. It represents the 3rd leading cause of cancer deaths in the world and the 5th leading cause of cancer in terms of incidence after lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer and prostate cance.

The two main topographic sites, cardia cancer and non-cardia gastric cancer, have distinct epidemiological characteristics and risk factors.

The geographical distribution of the incidence of gastric cancer is very heterogeneous with areas of high incidence: Asia, Central and South America and areas of low incidence: Western Europe and North America.

The main risk factors are chronic Helicobacter Pylori infection, genetic and environmental factors (including high consumption of salt, dietary nitrates used as preservatives, or tobacco).

Cardia adenocarcinoma, initially described by Siewert in 1996, has an increasing incidence, particularly in developed countries. Risk factors different from those of stomach cancer have been identified including a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2, gastroesophageal reflux, low intakes of fruits and vegetables, a low socioeconomic level .

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