Laboratoire hématologie, CHU Lille, France
Laboratoire hématologie CHU-HCL Lyon, France
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous disease with a poor prognosis, despite considerable progress in recent years due to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and technological advances in molecular biology and flow cytometry. In theory, an overview of the response to treatment can be achieved based on evaluation of minimal residual disease (MRD), as a single test. However, although MRD is one of the key parameters in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, its use in developing personalised treatment for AML remains limited to a few subgroups of the disease such as core binding factor leukaemia, NPM1-mutated leukaemia and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. This is mainly due to a lack of sensitivity of the techniques used for the other subgroups, a lack of standardisation of the techniques, and the heterogeneity of the biological material used (blood versus bone marrow). It is these latter parameters that will need to be rapidly standardised before MRD can be used as a surrogate marker for AMLs.